Electric power steering (EPS) controls and supports the steering of vehicles with the help of an intelligently controlled electric motor. A decisive advantage is the lower energy consumption. After all, the operating principle of an electric power steering system is simple but clever.
When the driver makes a steering movement, the torque sensor records the steering signal. Within fractions of a second, this data is transmitted as an electrical signal to the electronic control unit, which calculates the optimum steering assistance and passes this information on to the electric motor. Based on the calculated results, the electric motor provides the required power.
A key difference from hydraulic steering is that electric power steering only draws power when the driver actually performs a steering movement. A hydraulic pump, on the other hand, is always in motion when the engine is running.
E-steering also represents a key technology with regard to the future topic of automated driving. The integration of the electronic control unit into the vehicle's electrical system enables automated driving functions.